Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Every community should understand the risks it faces. By understanding its risks, a community can make smart decisions about how to manage risk, including developing needed capabilities. Risk is the potential for an unwanted outcome resulting from an incident, event, or occurrence, as determined by its likelihood and the associated consequences. The Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) process helps communities identify capability targets and resource requirements necessary to address anticipated and unanticipated risks.

Core Capabilities

Communities use the core capabilities described in the National Preparedness Goal to organize their capability targets in the THIRA process. The core capabilities provide a common language for preparedness across the whole community. 

The core capabilities are relevant to all five preparedness mission areas:

  • Prevention: Prevent, avoid, or stop an imminent, threatened, or actual act of terrorism. 
  • Protection: Protect our citizens, residents, visitors, and assets against the greatest threats and hazards in a manner that allows our interests, aspirations, and way of life to thrive.
  • Mitigation: Reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the impact of future disasters.
  • Response: Respond quickly to save lives; protect property and the environment; and meet basic human needs in the aftermath of a catastrophic incident.
  • Recovery: Recover through a focus on the timely restoration, strengthening, and revitalization of infrastructure, housing, and a sustainable economy, as well as the health, social, cultural, historic, and environmental fabric of communities affected by a catastrophic incident.

Threats and Hazards Identified

Cyber Attacks




Wildland Fire